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Acid Free

Papers that are without acid in the pulp and have a pH of 7.0 to 9.0 at the time of manufacture.

Acid Migration

Occurs when paper comes in contact with acidic material or is exposed to atmospheric pollution.


Paper that is not only acid free but also lignin and sulpher free.


Paper is neutralized by adding an alkaline such as calcium carbonate to the paper pulp to protect from the environment.


The cell wall of plants. Cotton in its raw state contains about 91% cellulose and is the purest form of natural cellulose.

Chin Colle

A paper collage process in which thin sheets of paper are laminated together by the pressure of an etching press and glue.


A Japanese term for the bark from the mulberry tree.

Cold Pressed

Paper surface with a slight to rough texture is created by pressing the sheets between various cold cylinders.


A thin bast fiber native to Nepal and used to make Lokta papers..

Deckle Edge

The feathered outer edge that occurs as a sheet of fine quality handmade paper is formed when the deckle is removed from the mould.


A tough grass that grows without cultivation in North Africa.


The gram weight of one square meter of paper.

Grain Direction

The direction in which fibers lie in a finished sheet of paper. Determined by the movement of the paper as it travels through the paper machine or on the papermakers mould.

High Alpha Cellulose

A very pure form of wood pulp which is considered to have the same longevity as cotton or other plant fibers.

Hollander Beater

Machine that crushes & beats plant fiber or rags to a pulp.

Hot Pressed

Pressing the sheets of paper between hot metal cylinders creates a smooth surface.


The long rough bark fiber from the mulberry tree that produces strong absorbent sheets of paper.


A component of the cell walls of plants. Lignin is largely responsible for the strength and rigidity of paper but its presence in paper is also believed to contribute to chemical degradation.


In chemistry, pH is a measure of acidity or alkalinity. Scale runs from 0 to 14 where 7 is pH neutral: numbers below 7 indicate acidity, numbers above 7 indicate increasing alkalinity.

Recycled Paper

Paper made from post consumer waste. Used paper is cooked in chemicals, de-inked and reduced to pulp then made into new paper.

Rice Paper

A common misnomer used to describe Oriental paper. Oriental paper is not made from rice!


The process of adding gelatin on the sheets of paper or starch in the paper pulp to provide a barrier from moisture.


Pulp is produced from the wood of coniferous trees. "Sulphite" has become a generic term and is still accurately used to describe any paper made from wood, in distinction from papers made from cotton.


In Japanese "cloud dragon paper", containing stands of fiber that add contrast and texture.


Japanese Wa, meaning "Japan", and Shi, meaning "paper".